Posts Tagged ‘Indian History

08
Oct
09

Vijaynagara

During the 12th-13th century, While the Ghurids occupied North of what is India currently, Harihara and his brother Bukka Raya established VIjaynagara (Vijaynagar) empire in the Deccan Plateau.

In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara (“master of the eastern and western seas”) (There were a lot of titles assigned to rulers in the south, this is just one of them). By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddy dynasty of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north.

In the following decades the Vijayanagara empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates. The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious. The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south. Many important monuments were either completed or commissioned during the time of Krishnadevaraya.

The empire went into a slow decline regionally, although trade with the Portuguese continued, and the British were given a land grant for the establishment of Madras.

25
Sep
09

Chola Dynasty

This post is a part of Indian History Series.

In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom. The Chola Empire was ruled by a Dravidian Tamil dynasty of that name that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River.

The Cholas were at the height of their power continuously from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th centuries. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-east Asia. During the period 1010–1200, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.

Chola kings and emperors bore the titles Parakesharivarman and Rajakesharivarman, alternately. Their chronology is difficult. Vijayalaya (reigned c. 850–870) began the occupation of the territory of the Pallavas, which was extended under Aditya I (reigned c. 870–907). Parantaka I (reigned 907– c. 953), known as the destroyer of Madurai (the capital city of the Pandyas), defeated Sinhalese invaders and united the lands of the Cholas and the Pandyas between 926 and 942. Coming to terms with the Rastrakutas, he took Nellore from them about 940, but their king, Krsna III, seized Tondaimandalam.

By 1014 Rajaraja had acquired the Lakshadweep and Maldive islands. His son Rajendracola Deva I (reigned 1014–44) outdid Rajaraja’s achievements.

The Chola ruler Virarajendra (reigned 1063–69) attempted to render the Chalukya empire in the Deccan harmless, but his death enabled Vikramaditya Chalukya to dabble in Chola family quarrels.

From 1216 the Hoysala kings obtained lands in the Chola country, former Chola feudatories threw off their allegiance, northern powers intervened, and the upheaval facilitated the Pandya conquest of the Chola country in 1257. The Chola dynasty ended in 1279.

Refer wiki and britannica for more

12
Sep
09

The Ghurid Empire

The last post of the Indian History Series was about Mohammed Ghori who was one of the most powerful rulers in the Ghurid Empire. This post is on the Ghurid Empire in general and they way it expanded and it came to an end.

Mohammed Ghori was a skilled commander and an efficient administrator. During the 11th and 12th centuries, he fought his neighbouring rulers and conquered the Ghaznavid Empire (Afghanistan and Iran). He moved to conquer the territories of Rajputs (Pakistan and India) by defeating Prithviraj.

Qutub-ud-din-Aibak’s Background

When Qutbuddin Aibak was still a young boy he was captured and sold as a slave. He was purchased by the chief judge of Nishapur. The judge treated Qutbuddin as a son, and raised him as an educated man skilled in archery and horsemanship. Upon the judge’s death, Qutbuddin was placed on the market again and was bought by the Sultan of Ghowr’s brother, Mohammed Ghori. After Ghori defeated Prithviraj, Qutbuddin was appointed the ruler of Delhi and the Viceroy of India. He built the Qutub Minar in the 12th century.

The Iqta System

The Ghorids, and by inheritance the Delhi Sultanate later secured their territory via a system known as Iqta. The Iqta system involved assigning strategically important land to one of the slave generals. The Iqta holders could support themselves by taxing the local population, and were expected to secure and expand their Iqta if they could.

End of Ghorid Empire

Mohammed Ghori’s brother died in 1203 which meant Ghori now had to take care of affairs in Central Asia along with conquests in India. In 1205, Ghuri made the mistake of attacking the Khwarizm Shah. His forces were defeated and then his army was all but annihilated by the Karakhitai while it was retreating. This defeat encouraged the Gakkar tribes of the salt range to rise in rebellion. They defeated the governor of Multan and plundered Lahore. This cut the Ghazni-Lahore route that allowed revenue from India to reach Ghuri in Ghazni. Ghuri hurried into the Punjab to confront the Gakkars and managed to defeat them with the timely arrival of Qutbuddin’s troops from Delhi. Muhammed Ghuri was assassinated in 1206 by either a Gakkar or Ismaili fanatic on his return to Ghazni.

Following Muhammed Ghuri’s death the more powerful Iqta holders in India declared independent sultanates. In 1206, the slave, Qutbuddin Aibak proclaimed the Delhi Sultanate and became the first sultan. It took twenty two years for Qutbuddin and his successor, Iltumish, to establish control over the other breakaway sultanates. The areas of the Ghurid Empire in Afghanistan and Central Asia were permanently lost to the Mongols. The Delhi Sultanate went on to be the dominate power in India, controlling all the way to the southern tip.

To read up more refer this and this and this

10
Sep
09

Mohammed Ghori

Mohammed Ghori a.k.a Muḥammad Shahābuddīn Ghorī a.k.a Muḥammad of Ghor was a powerful Sultan of the Ghor dynasty. The Ghorids are Sunni Muslims from Afghanistan. Their territory included whole of Afghanistan and parts of Modern Iran, Pakistan and India.

Ghori was born in 1162 AD. In 1173, at the age of 11, he became the Governor of the Ghazna province. In 1186, he conquered Lahore ending the Ghaznavid empire.

Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. In 1178 A.D he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him. In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battlefield. In the very next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded and defeated and killed the ruler of Kannauj Jaichand and also captured Benares. Gwallior, Gujarat and Ajmer were also occupied by 1197 AD.

The Ghurids were great patrons of Persian culture – language, identity, arts and literature. The most profound effect of Ghorī’s victory was the establishment of Muslim rule in India which would last for centuries and have great impact on life and culture of South Asia for centuries. Muḥammad Ghorī further expressed his intentions of promoting Islam in India.

Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD.

Read up this and this and this for more on Mohammed Ghori.

Muḥammad Shahābuddīn Ghorī
09
Sep
09

Indian History – Timeline

Have always wanted to read up Indian History. Post my tenth standard (where I scored 95 in social sciences, yeah am boasting), I have got little time or chance to read up on Indian History and connect the dots. Thats given birth to the Indian History posts on One Post Daily.

I’ll start off with the Indian history timeline. (with a focus on medieval era and modern era). Then I would want to profile each ruler, his rule and expanse, claim to fame and what led to his downfall. I would also try focusing on the shape of India during different times. Any other suggestions as to what I can focus on are always welcome. Please do comment. So here I start off with the Indian History Timeline.

The timeline below can be also looked up on this site

Medieval India Timeline

1192 AD: Mohammad of Ghori defeats Prithvi Raj, captures Delhi and establishes a Muslim sultanate at Delhi
1206 AD: The Ghurid prince Qutub-ud-din Aibak becomes the first sultan of Delhi
1250 AD: Chola dynasty comes to an end
1290 AD: Jalal ud-Din Firuz establishes the Khilji sultanate at Delhi
1325 AD: The Turks invade and Muhammad bin Tughlaq becomes sultan of Delhi
1343 AD: The southern kingdom builds its capital at Vijayanagar (Hampi)
1345 AD: Muslim nobles revolt against Muhammad bin Tughlaq and declare their independence from the Delhi sultanate. The Bahmani kingdom is established in the Deccan.
1370 AD: Vijayanagar kingdom takes over the Muslim sultanate of Madura in Tamil Nadu
1490 AD: Guru Nanak Dev Ji establishes Sikhism and the city of Amritsar
1497 AD: Babur, a ruler of Afghan, becomes the ruler of Ferghana and establishes the Mughal dynasty in India
1530 AD: Babur dies and his son Humayun succeeds as the next Mughal emperor
1540 AD: Babur’s son Humayun loses the empire to Afghan Leader Sher Shah and goes into exile in Persia
1555 AD: Mughal king Humayun comes to fight Sher Shah and regains India
1556 AD: Humayun dies and his son Akbar becomes one of the greatest rulers of India
1605 AD: Akbar dies and is succeeded by his son Jahangir
1611 AD: East India Company is established in India by the British
1617 AD: Jahangir’s son, Prince Khurram receives the title of Shah Jahan
1627 AD: Shivaji establishes the Maratha kingdom
1631 AD: Shah Jahan succeeds Jahangir and builds the world famous Taj Mahal
1658 AD: Shah Jahan’s son Aurangzeb seizes power
1707 AD: Aurangzeb dies, destabilizing the Mughal Empire

Modern India Timeline

1751 AD: Britain becomes the leading colonial power in India
1757 AD: British defeat Siraj-ud-daulah at the Battle of Plassey
1761 AD: Marathas rule over most of northern India
1764 AD: Britain expands to Bengal and Bihar
1769 AD: A famine kills ten million people in Bengal and the East India Company does nothing to help them
1773 AD: Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal establishes a monopoly on the sale of opium. Regulating Act passed by the British.
1793 AD: Permanent Settlement of Bengal
1799 AD: British defeat Tipu Sultan
1829 AD: Prohibition of Sati by law
1831 AD: Administration of Mysore is taken over by East India Company
1848 AD: Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General of India
1853 AD: Railway, postal services & telegraph line introduced in India
1857 AD: First War of Indian Independence also known as Revolt of 1857 or Sepoy Mutiny
1858 AD: British Crown officially takes over the Indian Government
1877 AD: Queen of England is proclaimed as the Empress of India
1885 AD: First meeting of the Indian National Congress
1899 AD: Lord Curzon becomes Governor-General and Viceroy of India
1905 AD: The First Partition of Bengal takes place
1906 AD: Muslim League is formed
1912 AD: The Imperial capital shifted to Delhi from Calcutta
1919 AD: The cruel Jallianwalla Bagh massacre takes place due to protests against the Rowlatt Act
1920 AD: Non-cooperation Movement launched
1922 AD: Chauri-Chaura violence takes place due to Civil Disobedience Movement
1928 AD: Simon Commission comes to India and is boycotted by all parties
1930 AD: Salt Satyagraha is launched as an agitation against salt tax. First Round Table Conference takes place
1931 AD: Second Round Table Conference takes place and Irwin-Gandhi Pact is signed
1934 AD: Civil Disobedience Movement is called off
1942 AD: Cripps Mission is formed; Quit India Movement is launched; Indian National Army is formed.
3rd June 1947 AD: Lord Mountbatten’s plan for partition of India comes into light
15th August 1947 AD: Partition of India and Independence from the British rule

There is also a very extensive timeline given on scaruffi.




So what’s this blog about?

Another attempt? Well yes. Attempting to figure out another sustainable model (there are some other attempts going on parallel-ly). Well, we have a lot of questions in mind. we read up stuff, we do some research to find answers to these questions. This is an attempt to publish that little 15-20 minute research.
June 2017
M T W T F S S
« May    
 1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930  

Click to subscribe to One Post Daily.

Join 5 other followers